“Because Work Time Is Life Time” : Employees’ Perceptions of Individual Overemployment, Its Causes and Its Consequences





Faculty/Professorship: Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour  
Author(s): Hiemer, Julia ; Andresen, Maike
Title of the Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
ISSN: 1664-1078
Corporate Body: Frontiers Research Foundation
Publisher Information: Lausanne
Year of publication: 2019
Volume: 10
Issue: 1920
Pages: 1-15
Language(s): English
Remark: 
Zweitveröffentlichung der Verlagsversion am 09.03.2021
Licence: Creative Commons - CC BY - Attribution 4.0 International 
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01920
Abstract: 
Many employees would prefer to reduce work time and can be defined as overemployed. However, the concept of overemployment is poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to define overemployment from employees’ point of view, to explain why people work more than they prefer, and to understand the individual consequences it has. We investigate 26 overemployed employees using a Grounded Theory approach. We find that overemployment is a four-dimensional experience consisting of work time length, work time competition (with time outside work), work time distribution on tasks, and work density. A self-reinforcing circle of personal and situational drivers seems to explain the persistence of overemployment. Regarding the psychosocial consequences of overemployment, our findings show large variations, whereby work time sovereignty seems to play a moderating role. This study provides a multidimensional framework of overemployment that provides a basis for understanding employees’ perceptions and behavior regarding overemployment and for deriving appropriate actions to reduce overemployment.
Keywords: overemployment, work time, work time preferences/desires, work hours, Grounded Theory
Peer Reviewed: Ja
International Distribution: Ja
Open Access Journal: Ja
Document Type: Article
URI: https://fis.uni-bamberg.de/handle/uniba/46318
Year of publication: 28. August 2019
Project: Überbeschäftigung (Overemployment)
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