Is (poly-) substance use associated with impaired inhibitory control? A mega-analysis controlling for confounders

Faculty/Professorship: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy  
Author(s): Liu, Yang; van den Wildenberg, Wery P.M.; de Graaf, Ysanne; Ames, Susan L.; Baldacchino, Alexander; Bø, Ragnhild; Cadaveira, Fernando; Campanella, Salvatore; Christiansen, Paul; Claus, Eric D.; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Filbey, Francesca M.; Foxe, John J.; Garavan, Hugh; Hendershot, Christian S.; Hester, Robert; Jester, Jennifer M.; Karoly, Hollis C.; Kräplin, Anja; Kreusch, Fanny; Landrø, Nils Inge; Littel, Marianne; Steins-Löber, Sabine  ; London, Edythe D.; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Lubman, Dan I.; Luijten, Maartje; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Metrik, Jane; Montgomery, Catharine; Papachristou, Harilaos; Park, Su Mi; Paz, Andres L.; Petit, Géraldine; Prisciandaro, James J.; Quednow, Boris B.; Ray, Lara A.; Roberts, Carl A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Steele, Vaughn R.; Sun, Delin; Takagi, Michael; Tapert, Susan F.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Vonmoos, Matthias; Wojnar, Marcin; Yao, Yuanwei; Yücel, Murat; Zack, Martin; Zucker, Robert A.; Huizenga, Hilde M.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Title of the Journal: Neuroscience & biobehavioral reviews : official journal of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
ISSN: 0149-7634
Publisher Information: Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science
Year of publication: 2019
Issue: Available online 15 July 2019
Pages: Online-Ressource
Language(s): English
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.07.006
Many studies have reported that heavy substance use is associated with impaired response inhibition. Studies typically focused on associations with a single substance, while polysubstance use is common. Further, most studies compared heavy users with light/non-users, though substance use occurs along a continuum. The current mega-analysis accounted for these issues by aggregating individual data from 43 studies (3610 adult participants) that used the Go/No-Go (GNG) or Stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition among mostly “recreational” substance users (i.e., the rate of substance use disorders was low). Main and interaction effects of substance use, demographics, and task-characteristics were entered in a linear mixed model. Contrary to many studies and reviews in the field, we found that only lifetime cannabis use was associated with impaired response inhibition in the SST. An interaction effect was also observed: the relationship between tobacco use and response inhibition (in the SST) differed between cannabis users and non-users, with a negative association between tobacco use and inhibition in the cannabis non-users. In addition, participants’ age, education level, and some task characteristics influenced inhibition outcomes. Overall, we found limited support for impaired inhibition among substance users when controlling for demographics and task-characteristics.
Keywords: Polysubstance use, Response inhibition, Stop-signal task, Go/No-Go task, Mega-analysis
Peer Reviewed: Ja
International Distribution: Ja
Type: Article
Year of publication: 29. July 2019